El Libro de Mormón/Anacronismos/Nombres

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Anacronismos en El Libro de Mormón: Nombres

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Preguntas


Se afirma que algunos nombres del Libro de Mormón se utilizan incorrectamente o en un contexto inapropiado. Los ejemplos incluyen:

  • el uso de "Alma", como el nombre de un hombre, en lugar de un nombre de mujer
  • El uso de los nombres de origen griego, como "Timoteo"

Respuesta


Muchos nombres del Libro de Mormón no se encuentran en la Biblia, y no se conocían a José Smith. Sin embargo, estos nombres tienen significado en lenguas antiguas y / o han sido encontrados como los nombres reales de la historia antigua. Estos "golpes" proporcionan evidencia adicional de que el Libro de Mormón es de hecho un registro antiguo.

Preguntas y Respuestas Detalladas


Tratamientos generales sobre el tema de los nombres en el Libro de Mormón

  • John A. Tvedtnes, "What's in a Name? A Look at the Book of Mormon Onomasticon (Review of I Know Thee by Name: Hebrew Roots of Lehi-ite Non-Biblical Names in the Book of Mormon)," FARMS Review of Books 8/2 (1996): 34–42. off-site (Inglés)
  • Gordon C. Thomasson, "What's in a Name? Book of Mormon Language, Names, and [Metonymic] Naming," Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 3/1 (1994): 1–27. off-site (Inglés) wiki
  • Stephen D. Ricks and John A. Tvedtnes, "The Hebrew Origin of Some Book of Mormon Place Names," Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6/2 (1997): 255–259. off-site (Inglés) wiki
  • John A. Tvedtnes, John Gee, Matthew Roper, "Book of Mormon Names Attested in Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions," Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9/1 (2000): 40–51. off-site (Inglés) wiki
  • Hugh W. Nibley, Lehi in the Desert, the World of the Jaredites, There Were Jaredites, edited by John W. Welch with Darrell L. Matthew and Stephen R. Callister, (Salt Lake City, Utah : Deseret Book Company ; Provo, Utah : Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1988), 23-32. ISBN 0875791328.
  • Paul Y. Hoskisson, "What's in a Name?," Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7/1 (1998): 78–78?. off-site (Inglés) wiki

TEMAS


Abish

Sumario: "Abish corresponds to the Hebrew name 'bš', found on a seal from pre-exilic times (prior to 587 BC) in the Hecht Museum in Haifa.19 The addition of the Hebrew letter aleph (symbolized by ' in transliteration) to the end of the name is known from other Hebrew hypocoristic names, suggesting that the name on the seal may be hypocoristic." [1] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Aha

Sumario: "Aha (OW), a name of the first Pharaoh; it means "warrior" and is a common word." [2]
  • "Hugh Nibley proposed that the name was of Egyptian origin meaning "warrior". But the name is now attested in several early inscriptions as Hebrew 'h', thought by scholars to have been vocalized 'Aha' and to be a hypocoristic name based on 'ah, "brother". The longer form, rendered Ahijah in the King James Bible, is 'ahîyah(û), which means "brother of Yah (Jehovah)" or "Yah is my brother",21 which is also attested in a dozen ancient Hebrew inscriptions."[1] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Alma

Sumario: "Alma is supposed to be a prophet of God and of Jewish ancestry in the Book of Mormon. In Hebrew Alma means a betrothed virgin maiden-hardly a fitting name for a man." - "Dr." Walter Martin, The Maze of Mormonism (Santa Ana, California: Vision House, 1978), 327. However, despite claims into the 1980s by anti-Mormon critics, the name "Alma" has been known since the 1960s as a male Hebrew name. It occurs in contexts from 2200 B.C. to the second century B.C.[3] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Ammon

Sumario: "Ammon (Amon, Amun) (OW), the commonest name in the Egyptian Empire: the great universal God of the Empire."[2] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Ammonihah

Sumario: "Ammoni-hah (BM), name of a country and city. [compare with] Ammuni-ra (OW), prince of Beyrut under Egyptian rule. The above might stand the same relationship to this name as Khamuni-ra (OW), Amarna personal name, perhaps equivalent of Ammuni-ra."[2]"The name is attested on two Hebrew seals, one known to date to the seventh century BC, in the forms ‘mnyhw and ‘mnwyhw." [1] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Chemish

Sumario: "His name is apparently related to that of the Ammonite god Chemosh, spelled Kmš in prevocalic Hebrew and Ammonite (related languages). A number of names containing the element Kmš are known, in which it is clear that the divine name was meant.33 Also known is a seal currently in the Israel Museum that has Kmš as the name of a man or woman." [1] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Com

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Coriantumr

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Corihor

Sumario: See "Korihor". (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Cumenihah

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Cumorah

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Hagoth

Sumario: "One Book of Mormon critic argued that Joseph Smith derived the name Hagoth from the name of the biblical prophet Haggai. Indeed, the names may be related, but a closer parallel is the biblical Haggith (see 2 Samuel 3:4; 1 Kings 1:5, etc.), which may have been vocalized Hagoth anciently. All three names derive from a root referring to a pilgrimage to attend religious festivals. The name Hagoth is attested in the form Hgt on an Ammonite seal inscribed sometime in the eighth through the sixth centuries BC36 (The Ammonites, neighbors of the Israelites and descendants of Abraham's nephew Lot, wrote and spoke the same language as the Israelites.)" [1] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Helaman

Sumario: "Helaman (BM), great Nephite prophet. [compare with] Her-amon (OW), "in the presence of Amon," as in the Egyptian proper name Heri-i-her-imn. Semitic "l" is always written "r" in Egyptian, which has no "l." Conversely, the Egyptian "r" is often written "l" in Semitic languages.[2] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Hem

Sumario: "Hem (BM), brother of the earlier Ammon." "Hem (OW), means "servant," specifically of Ammon, as in the title Hem tp n 'Imn, "chief servant of Ammon" held by the high priest of Thebes." [2] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Himni

Sumario: "Himni (BM), a son of King Mosiah. Hmn (OW), a name of the Egyptian hawk-god, symbol of the emperor."[2]"...the name Himni is clearly Hebrew and is represented by the unvocalized form, Hmn on two Israelite seals. The first, from the eighth century BC, was found at Megiddo in the Jezreel Valley. The other is from the first half of the seventh century BC." [1] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Isabel

Sumario: "Isabel was a harlot in the land of Siron, on the border between the Lamanites and the Zoramites (see Alma 39:3). LDS scholars have generally assumed that the name is identical to that of the Old Testament Jezebel, the Hebrew form of which was 'ÃŽzebel, and this is probably correct. But the spelling Yzbl is now attested on a seal in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem that is thought to be Phoenician in origin." [1] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Irreantum

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Jarrom

Sumario: "One might wish to compare Jarom with the biblical name Jehoram, which is found twenty-one times in the Bible, while its hypocoristic form Joram occurs twenty-four times. But several Hebrew inscriptions bear the name Yrm, which scholars consider to be the hypocoristic form of Yrmyh(w), Jeremiah, whose name means "Yah (Jehovah) exalts." Yrm is found in four Hebrew inscriptions, including a seal of the seventh century BC, found in Egypt, and three items from the time of Lehi: a jug inscription from Tel esh-Shari‘ah, and an ostracon and bulla in the Moussaieff collection." [1] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Jershon

Sumario: Matthew Roper: "The Book of Mormon name Jershon can be traced to a Hebrew root meaning 'to inherit.' In the Book of Mormon we read 'Behold, we will give up the land of Jershon, which is on the east by the sea…and this land of Jershon is the land which we will give unto our brethren for an inheritance' (Alma 27:22)." (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Josh

Sumario: "Josh was the name of a city destroyed at the time of Christ's crucifixion (see 3 Nephi 9:10) and of a Nephite military leader who died in the great battle at Cumorah (see Mormon 6:14). Critics have suggested that this is merely the American diminutive for the name Joshua. But a number of Hebrew inscriptions bear the name Y'š, probably vocalized Yô'š, which Israeli scholars have acknowledged to be hypocoristic for the biblical name Y'šyhw, Josiah, in whose reign Jeremiah began his prophetic mission (see Jeremiah 1:2; Plantilla:Bv).43 The name appears in three of the Lachish letters (2, 3, and 6) from the time of Lehi.44 It is also the name of four persons named in the fifth-century BC Jewish Aramaic papyri from Elephantine, Egypt. Four of the bullae found near Tel Beit Mirsim and dating from ca. 600 BC bear the name Y'š. Three of them were made from the same seal. (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Kim

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Korihor

Sumario: "Korihor (BM), a political agitator who was seized by the people of Ammon. Kherihor (also written Khurhor, etc.) (OW), great high priest of Ammon who seized the throne of Egypt at Thebes, cir. 1085 B.C."[2]The twenty-first [Egyptian] dynasty was founded by a person called Korihor whose son was Piankhi. That's a very funny name; you don't invent a thing like that. It wasn't discovered until the 1870s that Piankhi is a name that we have in the Book of Mormon. Korihor was a priest of Amon who usurped the power of the state. His son Piankhi became king.[4] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Lachoneus

Sumario: Wrote Hugh Nibley of this Old World name: "The occurrence of the names Timothy and Lachoneus in the Book of Mormon is strictly in order, however odd it may seem at first glance. Since the fourteenth century B.C. at latest, Syria and Palestine had been in constant contact with the Aegean world, and since the middle of the seventh century Greek mercenaries and merchants, closely bound to Egyptian interests (the best Egyptian mercenaries were Greeks), swarmed throughout the Near East. Lehi's people...could not have avoided considerable contact with these people in Egypt and especially in Sidon, which Greek poets even in that day were celebrating as the great world center of trade. It is interesting to note in passing that Timothy is an Ionian name, since the Greeks in Palestine were Ionians (hence the Hebrew name for Greeks: "Sons of Javanim"), and—since "Lachoneus" means "a Laconian"—that the oldest Greek traders were Laconians, who had colonies in Cyprus (BM Akish) and of course traded with Palestine[2]Lehi or Mulek's group would have then known—or even contained—people named "Lachoneus," a proper Greek name of the proper sort in the proper timeframe. (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Lehi and Sariah

Lehi

Sumario: two different twentieth-century archaeological finds from Palestine attest to the term lḥy as a male personal name. One inscription is on a papyrus fragment found in 1962 among the Samaria Papyri of the Wadi el-Daliyeh; it preserves lḥy as the main element of a compound name. The other inscription in which lḥy stands alone as a personal name appears on an ostracon (an inscribed ceramic sherd) found in 1939 at Tell el-Kheleifeh (ancient Elath) on the shore of the Red Sea. (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Sariah

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)
It is also an interesting coincidence that similar evidence for Lehi's wife's name has turned up in a papyrus document, written in Persian period Aramaic, in the era following the sixth century BC. The female Jewish/Hebrew name Sariah appears in an Aramaic papyrus from the fifth century BC (albeit partially restored by the original publisher). The document is known as C-22 (or Cowley-22), and was found at Elephantine in upper Egypt around the year 1900....The female name Sariah does not appear in the Bible, just as the male name Lehi does not. Yet both appear in the Book of Mormon. That we can now identify both the Jewish/Hebrew names Sariah in the Elephantine Papyri and Lehi in the Samaria Papyri and on Ostracon 2071 represents two significant steps forward in corroborating the authenticity [of the Book of Mormon].

Liahona

Sumario: literally, "to Yahweh is the whither" or, by interpretation, "direction of-to the Lord." (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Limhah

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Luram

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)
  • "The name is reflected in the second element of the name 'dn-Lrm, "Lord of LRM," known from a seal of ca. 720 BC found during excavations at Hama (Hamath) in Syria. The name is also known from graffiti on three bricks from the same level at Hama." [1]

Manti

Sumario: "Manti (BM), the name of a Nephite soldier, a land, a city, and a hill. Manti (OW), Semitic form of an Egyptian proper name, e.g., Manti-mankhi, a prince in Upper Egypt cir. 650 B.C. It is a late form of Month, god of Hermonthis." [2] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Mathoni

Sumario: "The Hebrew name Mtnyhw appears on a seventh- century BC wine decanter, on six seals, and on seven bullae, most of them from the time of Lehi. The hypocoristic Mtn, which could be vocalized either Mattan (as in the Bible) or Mathoni (as in the Book of Mormon), is found on Ostracon 1682/2 from Khirbet el-Meshash (second half of the seventh century BC), seven seals (most from the seventh century BC), and eleven bullae (most from the time of Lehi)." [1] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Mathonihah

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Moronihah

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Mosiah

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)
  • John Sawyer, "What Was a Mosiaʿ?" Vetus Testamentum 15 (1965): 475–486 [FARMS Reprint in 1989]; cited and applied by John W. Welch, "What Was A 'Mosiah'?," in Reexploring the Book of Mormon, edited by John W. Welch, (Provo, Utah: FARMS, 1992), 105–107. ISBN 0875796001 off-site (Inglés) FAIR link

Mulek

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Muloki

Sumario: "Muloki was one of the men who accompanied the sons of Mosiah on their mission to the Lamanites (see Alma 20:2; 21:11). His name suggests that he may have been a Mulekite. Also from the same root are names such as Mulek and Melek, which is the Hebrew word meaning "king". Mulek is hypocoristic for Hebrew Mlkyh(w) (KJV Melchiah and Malchiah), which is attested both in the Bible (see 1 Chronicles 6:40; Ezra 10:25, 3; Nehemiah 3:14, 31; 8:4; 11:12; Jeremiah 21:1; 38:1, 6) and in numerous ancient inscriptions, most of them from the time of Lehi. Indeed, it has been suggested that one of the men bearing this name is the Mulek of the Book of Mormon. He is called "Malchiah the son of Hammelech," which means "Malchiah, son of the king" (see Jeremiah 38:6).
Muloki corresponds to the name Mlky on a bulla found in the City of David (Jerusalem) and dating from the time of Lehi." [1] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Nahom

Sumario: Nephi's party reaches an area "which was called Nahom" (1 Nephi 16:34) near the time that they make an eastward turn in their journey. NHM [the root for naham] appears twenty-five times in the narrative books of the Bible, and in every case it is associated with death. Strikingly, altars dating from the time of Lehi have been found with the inscription "NHM." As one travels south-southeast of Jerusalem along the major trunk of the ancient Arabian trade route, the route branches east toward the southeastern coast at only one point: in the Jawf valley (Wadi Jawf) just a few miles from Nehem. From thence the eastern branch of the trade route goes toward the ancient port of Qana--modern Bir Ali—on the Hadhramaut coast, where most of the incense was shipped. This eastern branch was the major route—the pathways to the south were less used. (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Nephi

Sumario: "Nephi (BM), founder of the Nephite nation. Nehi, Nehri (OW), famous Egyptian noblemen. Nfy was the name of an Egyptian captain. Since BM insists on "ph," Nephi is closer to Nihpi, original name of the god Pa-nepi, which may even have been Nephi."[2] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Nephihah

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Onihah

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Paanchi

Sumario: "Paanchi (BM), son of Pahoran, Sr., and pretender to the chief-judgeship. Paanchi (OW), son of Kherihor, a) chief high priest of Amon, b) ruler of the south who conquered all of Egypt and was high priest of Amon at Thebes."[2] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Pahoran

Sumario: Pahoran (BM), a) great chief judge, b) son of the same. Pa-her-an (OW), ambassador of Egypt in Palestine, where his name has the "reformed" reading Pahura; in Egyptian as Pa-her-y it means "the Syrian" or Asiatic."[2] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Pacumeni

Sumario: "Pacumeni (BM), son of Pahoran. Pakamen (OW), Egyptian proper name meaning "blind man"; also Pamenches (Gk. Pachomios), commander of the south and high priest of Horus."[2] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Pachus

Sumario: "Pachus (BM), revolutionary leader and usurper of the throne. Pa-ks and Pach-qs (OW), Egyptian proper name. Compare Pa-ches-i, "he is praised.""[2] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Rameumptom

Sumario: While many words and names found in the Book of Mormon have exact equivalents in the Hebrew Bible, certain others exhibit Semitic characteristics, though their spelling does not always match known Hebrew forms. For example, "Rabbanah" as "great king" (Alma 18:13) may have affinities with the Hebrew root /rbb/, meaning "to be great or many." "Rameumptom" (Alma 31:21), meaning "holy stand," contains consonantal patterns suggesting the stems /rmm/ramah/, "to be high," and /tmm/tam/tom/, "to be complete, perfect, holy.[5] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Rabbanah

Sumario: While many words and names found in the Book of Mormon have exact equivalents in the Hebrew Bible, certain others exhibit Semitic characteristics, though their spelling does not always match known Hebrew forms. For example, "Rabbanah" as "great king" (Alma 18:13) may have affinities with the Hebrew root /rbb/, meaning "to be great or many." "Rameumptom" (Alma 31:21), meaning "holy stand," contains consonantal patterns suggesting the stems /rmm/ramah/, "to be high," and /tmm/tam/tom/, "to be complete, perfect, holy.[6] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Sam

Sumario: "While Sam is a perfectly good Egyptian name, it is also the normal Arabic form of Shem, the son of Noah." "Sam (BM), brother of Nephi. Sam Tawi (OW), Egyptian "uniter of the lands," title taken by the brother of Nehri upon mounting the throne."[2] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Sheum

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Shilum

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Timothy

Sumario: [R]emember...that in Lehi's day Palestine was swarming with Greeks, important Greeks. Remember, it was Egyptian territory [prior to being seized by Babylon] at that time and Egyptian culture. The Egyptian army, Necho's army, was almost entirely Greek mercenaries. We have inscriptions from that very time up the Nile at Aswan-inscriptions from the mercenaries of the Egyptian army, and they're all in Greek. So Greek was very common, and especially the name Timotheus.[7] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Zarahemla

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)
  • Stephen D. Ricks and John A. Tvedtnes, "The Hebrew Origin of Some Book of Mormon Place Names," Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6/2 (1997): 255–259. off-site (Inglés) wiki

Zemnarihah

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

For remarks on the "-ihah" ending likely not reflecting the divine name of God (Yahweh or Jehovah), see:

  • Paul Y. Hoskisson, "It Is OK Not to Have Every Answer: The Book of Mormon Onomastic Ending -(i)hah," Journal of the Book of Mormon and Restoration Scripture 18/1 (2009): 48–55. off-site (Inglés) wiki

Zenoch

Sumario: "Zenoch (BM), according to various Nephite writers, an ancient Hebrew prophet. Zenekh (OW), Egyptian proper name; once a serpent-god."[2] (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Zeezrom

(Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)


Less well supported examples

Linguistics is a complex subject, and it is all too common for zealous but mistaken defenders of the Church to use parallels in names or language which cannot be sustained. Since most Church members have no training in ancient American languages, evaluating such claims can be difficult.

Mesoamerican scholars consulted by FAIR have recommended that the following sources, while superficially persuasive, should be used with caution (if at all):

These comments are not intended to disparage the individuals involved, but to encourage rigor and restraint in claims made. As Elder Dallin H. Oaks cautioned, "When attacked by error, truth is better served by silence than by a bad argument."[8]

Plantilla:Videos label

Notas


  1. 1,00 1,01 1,02 1,03 1,04 1,05 1,06 1,07 1,08 1,09 1,10 John A. Tvedtnes, John Gee, Matthew Roper, "Book of Mormon Names Attested in Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions," Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9/1 (2000): 40–51. off-site (Inglés) wiki
  2. 2,00 2,01 2,02 2,03 2,04 2,05 2,06 2,07 2,08 2,09 2,10 2,11 2,12 2,13 2,14 2,15 Hugh W. Nibley, Lehi in the Desert, the World of the Jaredites, There Were Jaredites, edited by John W. Welch with Darrell L. Matthew and Stephen R. Callister, (Salt Lake City, Utah : Deseret Book Company ; Provo, Utah : Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1988), 23-32. ISBN 0875791328. [Nibley marks Old World names as (OW) and Book of Mormon names as (BM).]
  3. Matthew Roper, "Right on Target: Boomerang Hits and the Book of Mormon, FAIR Conference, 2001.
  4. Hugh Nibley, Ancient Documents and the Pearl of Great Price, edited by Robert Smith and Robert Smythe (n.p., n.d.), 11.
  5. Brian D. Stubbs, "Book of Mormon Language," in Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 4 vols., edited by Daniel H. Ludlow, (New York, Macmillan Publishing, 1992), 1:181. off-site (Inglés) off-site (Inglés)
  6. Brian D. Stubbs, "Book of Mormon Language," in Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 4 vols., edited by Daniel H. Ludlow, (New York, Macmillan Publishing, 1992), 1:181. off-site (Inglés) off-site (Inglés)
  7. Hugh W. Nibley, "Lecture 27: Omni; Words of Mormon; Mosiah 1: The End of the Small Plates and The Coronation of Mosiah," in Teachings of the Book of Mormon: Transcripts of lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon Class at Brigham Young University 1988-1990, Vol. 1, (Provo, Utah: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1993), 430. ISBN 1591565715.
  8. Dallin H. Oaks, "Alternative Voices," Ensign (May 1989), 27.

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