El Mormonismo y la naturaleza de Dios/Deificación de los Seres Humanos

Tabla de Contenidos

Deificación de los Seres Humanos

  NEEDS TRANSLATION  

Artículo traducido y redactado con permiso de FAIRLDS por: Andrew Miller

Todavía estoy en el proceso de traducirlo. Por favor, tengan paciencia conmigo.

Preguntas


Los críticos reclaman que la doctrina de la deificación de los seres humanos es falsa, contra la Biblia, y arrogante.

También reclaman que:

  • Los mormones creen que «reemplazarán a Dios»
  • Creer en la deificación de los seres humanos implica que hay más que solo un “dios,” lo que significa que la doctrina mormona es politeísta.

Las fuentes de la acusación

  • Ed Decker, Los Fabricantes de Dioses
  • Ed Decker, Los Fabricantes de Dioses II
  • Walter Martin, Kingdom of the Cults («El Reino de las Sectas») (Minneapolis: Bethany House Publishers, 1997).

Respuesta


En conclusión, es apropiado citar Origen:

Ahora bien, es posible que algunos no les gusta lo que hemos dicho que representa al Padre como el único Dios verdadero, pero admitiendo otros seres aparte del Dios verdadero, que se han convertido en dioses por tener una parte de Dios. Pueden temer que la gloria de Aquel que supera a toda la creación se puede bajar al nivel de esos otros seres llamados dioses. Ellos pueden tener miedo de que la gloria de Aquel que supera toda la creación se puede bajar a la palanca de esos otros seres llamados dioses ... [Sin embargo], ya que, a continuación, hay muchos dioses, pero para nosotros no hay más que un solo Dios el Padre, y muchos señores, pero para nosotros hay un solo Señor, Jesucristo (cf. 1 Cor. 8:5-6). [1]

Es cierto que algunos pueden no les gusta esta doctrina, pero es antigua, bíblica, y verdadero.

En lo que se refiere a la doctrina mormona, estudioso no-LDS Ernst W. Benz ha observado:

Uno puede pensar lo que uno quiere de esta doctrina de la divinización progresiva, pero una cosa es cierta: con esta antropología Joseph Smith está más cerca de la visión del hombre en manos de la Iglesia antigua que los precursores de la doctrina agustiniana del pecado original.[2]

TEMAS


Deificación de los Seres Humanos

Algunos cristianos afirman que la doctrina de la deificación humana no es bíblica, falsa y arrogante. (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)

Dioses de sus propios planetas

Sumario: Se afirma que los mormones creen que pueden empujarse mayor en un tipo de "jerarquía celestial. 'Esto a menudo se expresa en la afirmación de que SUD hombres desean convertirse en "dioses de sus propios planetas." (Haga clic aquí para ver el artículo completo)


Preguntas y Respuestas Detalladas


Hace poco la iglesia dijo lo siguiente:

Nosotros creemos que la referencia bíblica del apóstol Pedro a llegar «a ser participantes de la naturaleza divina» y la referencia del apóstol Pablo a ser «coherederos con Cristo» reflejan el deseo de que los hijos de Dios deben esforzarse emular su Padre Celestial en todos aspectos. A través de las eternidades, creen los mormones, que venerarán y adorarán a Dios el Padre y a Jesucristo. Su meta no es igualarlos ni alcanzar paridad con Ellos, sino imitar y algún día adquirir su perfecta bondad, amor y otros atributos divinos. (la traducción es nuestra) [3]

¿Reemplazarle a Dios?

Debemos entender primeramente que:

El Padre solo es el verdadero Dios. Por cierto: nadie jamás ascenderá más arriba de Él; nadie lo reemplazará nunca jamás. Tampoco hay algo que jamás cambiará nuestra relación que nosotros, su linaje literal, tenemos con Dios. El es Elohim, el Padre. El es Dios. De Él solo hay uno. Lo veneramos como nuestro Padre y Dios; lo adoramos a Él.[4]

La creencia en la deificación de los seres humanos no significa que los SUD creen que su adoración es o será dirigida correctamente en alguien menos que Dios el Padre, y su Hijo Jesucristo.

Anti-cristiano?

Los críticos insisten que la doctrina de deificación no concuerda con la doctrina bíblica y es anti-cristiana. A lo contrario, un repaso de la historia cristiana demuestra que esa doctrina fue y es bastante común entre los cristianos y que los críticos anti-mormones son los que enseñan una doctrina nueva y diferente.

Irenaeus (ca. AD 115-202)

San Irenaeus fue discípulo de Polycarp quien fue discípulo de Juan el Amado.[5] Irenaeus no fue herético ni es considerado tal por los cristianos modernos, y él enseñó la deificación, y como los SUD, Irenaeus no creía que esta enseñanza de ninguna manera les desplaza a el Padre, Hijo o Espíritu Santo.

No hay nadie llamado ¨dios¨ por las escrituras menos el Padre de todos, y el Hijo, y los que poseen la adopción. Por tanto, entonces, esto es seguro y fiel, que no otro Dios o Señor fue anunciado por el Espíritu menos El quien, siendo Dios, reina sobre todo, juno con Su Verbo, y todos los que reciban el Espíritu de adopción. (traducción nuestra)[6]

También él enseñó que los exaltados serán ¨dioses.¨

No éramos hechos dios en el principio, pero hombres, luego, en el fin, [seremos] dioses. (traducción nuestra)[7]

También:

¿Cómo, entonces, será alguien un dios, si no había sido hecho hombre primero? ¿Cómo podrá ser perfecto alguien cuando solo recein ha sido hecho hombre? ¿Cómo inmortal si no ha obedecido su Hacedor cuando en su estado mortal? Pues, primero es el deber de uno observar la disciplina de los hombres y luego compartir en la gloria de Dios. (traducción nuestra)[8]
Nuestro Señor Jesucristo, el Verbo de Dios, por su amor infinito, se hizo lo que somos nosotros para que él pueda hacernos a nosotros lo que él es.” [9]

Además, Irenaeus cree que la docrtrina es bíblica como los SUD:

For he who holds, without pride and boasting, the true glory (opinion) regarding created things and the Creator, who is the Almighty God of all, and who has granted existence to all; [such an one, ] continuing in His love and subjection, and giving of thanks, shall also receive from Him the greater glory of promotion, looking forward to the time when he shall become like Him who died for him, for He, too, "was made in the likeness of sinful flesh," to condemn sin, and to cast it, as now a condemned thing, away beyond the flesh, but that He might call man forth into His own likeness, assigning him as [His own] imitator to God, and imposing on him His Father's law, in order that he may see God, and granting him power to receive the Father; [being] the Word of God who dwelt in man, and became the Son of man, that He might accustom man to receive God, and God to dwell in man, according to the good pleasure of the Father.[10]


Un teólogo dijo lo siguiente acerca de Irenaeus:

Participación en Dios para Irenaeus significaba la deificación. 'No éramos hechos dioses en el principio,' dice él, 'pero primero hombres, y después de tiempo dioses.' Eso no se debe entender como exageración retorica por el parte de Irenaeus. Él quería que eso se entendiera literalmente.(tradución nuestra) [11]

Clement of Alexandria (AD 150-215)

Clement, an early Christian leader in Alexandria, also taught the doctrine of deification:

yea, I say, the Word of God became a man so that you might learn from a man how to become a god.[12]

And:

...if one knows himself, he will know God, and knowing God will become like God...His is beauty, true beauty, for it is God, and that man becomes god, since God wills it. So Heraclitus was right when he said, "Men are gods, and gods are men."[13]
Those who have been perfected are given their reward and their honors. They have done with their purification, they have done with the rest of their service, though it be a holy service, with the holy; now they become pure in heart, and because of their close intimacy with the Lord there awaits them a restoration to eternal contemplation; and they have received the title of "gods" since they are destined to be enthroned with the other "gods" who are ranked next below the savior.[14]

Origen (ca. AD 185-251)

And thus the first-born of all creation, who is the first to be with God, and to attract to Himself divinity, is a being of more exalted rank than the other gods beside Him, of whom God is the God, as it is written, "The God of gods, the Lord, hath spoken and called the earth." It was by the offices of the first-born that they became gods, for He drew from God in generous measure that they should be made gods, and He communicated it to them according to His own bounty. The true God, then, is "The God," and those who are formed after Him are gods, images, as it were, of Him the prototype. [15]
The Father, then, is proclaimed as the one true God; but besides the true God are many who become gods by participating in God. [16]

Origen also defined what it means to "participate" in something:

Every one who participates in anything, is unquestionably of one essence and nature with him who is partaker of the same thing. [17]

Justin Martyr (d. ca. AD 163)

Justin the Martyr said in 150 A.D. that he wishes

to prove to you that the Holy Ghost reproaches men because they were made like God, free from suffering and death, provided that they kept His commandments, and were deemed deserving of the name of His sons... in the beginning men were made like God, free from suffering and death, and that they are thus deemed worthy of becoming gods and of having power to become sons of the highest...[18]

Also,

[By Psalm 82] it is demonstrated that all men are deemed worthy of becoming “gods,” and even of having power to become sons of the Highest.[19]

Hippolytus (AD 170-236)

Now in all these acts He offered up, as the first-fruits, His own manhood, in order that thou, when thou art in tribulation, mayest not be disheartened, but, confessing thyself to be a man (of like nature with the Redeemer,) mayest dwell in expectation of also receiving what the Father has granted unto this Son...The Deity (by condescension) does not diminish anything of the dignity of His divine perfection having made you even God unto his glory. [20]

Athanasius

In 347, Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria and participant in the council of Nicea, said:

the Word was made flesh in order that we might be enabled to be made gods....just as the Lord, putting on the body, became a man, so also we men are both deified through His flesh, and henceforth inherit everlasting life...[we are] sons and gods by reason of the word in us.[21]
For as Christ died and was exalted as man, so, as man, is He said to take what, as God, He ever had, that even such a grant of grace might reach to us. For the Word was not impaired in receiving a body, that He should seek to receive a grace, but rather He deified that which He put on, and more than that, gave it graciously to the race of man. [22]

He also states that Christ "became man that we might be made divine." [23]

Augustine (AD 354-430)

Augustine, considered one of the greatest Christian Fathers, said

but He himself that justifies also deifies, for by justifying He makes sons of God. For He has given them power to become the sons of God, (John 1:12). If then we have been made sons of God, we have also been made gods.[24]

Jerome (AD 340-420)

Jerome also described the deification of believers as an act of grace, which matches the LDS understanding precisely:

“I said 'you are gods, all of you sons of the most high.’" let Eunomius hear this, let Arius, who say that the son of God is son in the same way we are. That we are gods is not so by nature, but by grace. “but to as many as receive Him he gave power to becoming sons of God” I made man for that purpose, that from men they may become gods. We are called gods and sons!...[Christ said] "all of you sons of the Most High," it is not possible to be the son of the Most High, unless He Himself is the Most High. I said that all of you would be exalted as I am exalted.[25]

Jerome goes on to say that we should

give thanks to the God of gods. The prophet is referring to those gods of whom it is written: I said ‘you are gods’ and again ‘god arises in the divine assembly’ they who cease to be mere men, abandon the ways of vice an are become perfect, are gods and the sons of the most high...[26]

Modern Christian exegesis

The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Theology describes "deification" thusly:

Deification (Greek Theosis) is for orthodoxy the goal of every Christian. Man, according to the Bible, is ‘made in the image and likeness of God’...it is possible for man to become like God, to become deified, to become God by grace. This doctrine is based on many passages of both O.T. and N.T. (Psalms 82: (81) .6; 2 Peter 1:4), and it is essentially the teaching both of St. Paul, though he tends to use the language of filial adoption (Romans 8:9-17, Galatians 4:5-7) and the fourth gospel (John 17:21-23).[27]

Joseph Fitzmyer wrote:

The language of 2 Peter is taken up by St. Irenaeus, in his famous phrase, ‘if the Word has been made man, it is so that men may be made gods; (adv. Haer v, pref.), And becomes the standard in Greek theology. In the fourth century St. Athanasius repeats Irenaeus almost word for word, and in the fifth century St. Cyril of Alexandria says that we shall become sons ‘by participation’ (Greek methexis). Deification is the central idea in the spirituality of St. Maximus the confessor, for whom the doctrine is corollary of the incarnation: ‘deification, briefly, is the encompassing and fulfillment of all times and ages’,...and St. Symeon the new theologian at the end of the tenth century writes, ‘he who is God by nature converses with those whom he has made gods by grace, as a friend converses with his friends, face to face...’
Finally, it should be noted that deification does not mean absorption into God, since the deified creature remains itself and distinct. It is the whole human being, body and soul, who is transfigured in the spirit into the likeness of the divine nature, and deification is the goal of every Christian.[28]

According to Christian scholar G.L. Prestige, the ancient Christians “taught that the destiny of man was to become like God, and even to become deified.”[29]

William R. Inge, Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote:

"God became man, that we might become God" was a commonplace of doctrinal theology at least until the time of Augustine, and that "deification holds a very large place in the writings of the fathers...We find it in Irenaeus as well as in Clement, in Athanasius as well in Gregory of Nysee. St. Augustine was no more afraid of deificari in Latin than Origen of apotheosis in Greek...To modern ears the word deification sounds not only strange but arrogant and shocking.[30]

Yet, these "arrogant and shocking" doctrines were clearly held by early Christians!

This view of the early Christians' doctrines is not unique to the Latter-day Saints. Many modern Christian writers have recognized the same doctrines. If the critics do not wish to embrace these ancient doctrines, that is their privilege, but they cannot logically claim that such doctrines are not "Christian." One might fairly ask why modern Christians do not believe that which the ancient Christians insisted upon?

UnBiblical?

The previous section demonstrates that theosis has been taught by many Christians through the centuries. They pulled these beliefs from the Bible itself.

Please compare a few descriptions of Jesus Christ to those of exalted man in the following Bible passages:

Aspect Jesus Christ The Saints
Crown Revelation 14:14 James 1:12, Revelation 2:10, Revelation 4:4,10
White robe Matthew 17:2, Mark 9:3, Luke 9:29 Revelation 6:11, Revelation 7:9-14
Scepter Hebrews 1:8 Revelation 2:26-27
Secret Name Revelation 19:12 Revelation 2:17
Image Colossians 1:15, Hebrews 1:3, 2 Corinthians 4:4 Romans 8:29, 1 Corinthians 15:49, 2 Corinthians 3:18, Colossians 3:10
Throne Revelation 3:21 Revelation 3:21
Heir of God Romans 8:17 Romans 8:14-21, Galatians 4:1-7
Possession of "all things" Matthew 11:27, John 3:34, John 13:3, John 16:15, Hebrews 1:2 Revelation 21:7, Romans 8:32, 1 Corinthians 3:21, 2 Corinthians 6:10
Title of "son" Hebrews 1:5, Hebrews 5:5, John 3:16 1 John 3:1-2, Philippians 2:15, Romans 8:14, John 1:12, Galatians 3:26
King and priest John 1:49, Hebrews 3:1 Revelation 1:6, Revelation 5:10
Perfect Matthew 5:48 Matthew 5:48
One with God John 14:11, John 17:20-21, John 10:30 John 14:20, John 17:21-23

Escrituras

Theosis o deificación se discute en los siguientes pasajes bíblicos:

Notas


  1. [back]  Origen, Commentary on John, Book II, Chapter 3.
  2. [back]  Ernst W. Benz, "Imago Dei: Man in the Image of God," in Truman G. Madsen (editor), Reflections on Mormonism: Judaeo-Christian parallels : papers delivered at the Religious Studies Center symposium, Brigham Young University, March 10-11, 1978 (Provo, Utah: Religious Studies Center , Brigham Young University and Bookcraft, 1978), 215–216. ISBN 0884943585. Reprinted in Ernst Benz, "Imago dei: Man as the Image of God," FARMS Review 17/1 (2005): 223–254. off-site (Inglés)Note: Benz misunderstands some aspects of LDS doctrine, but his sketch of the relevance of theosis for Christianity in general, and Joseph Smith's implementation of it, is worthwhile.
  3. [back]  Fox News, "21 Questions Answered About Mormon Faith," (18 December 2007). off-site (Inglés)
  4. [back]  Boyd K. Packer, "The Pattern of Our Parentage," Ensign (November 1984), 69. off-site (Inglés)
  5. [back] Ernst W. Benz, "Imago Dei: Man in the Image of God," in Truman G. Madsen (editor), Reflections on Mormonism: Judaeo-Christian parallels : papers delivered at the Religious Studies Center symposium, Brigham Young University, March 10-11, 1978 (Provo, Utah: Religious Studies Center , Brigham Young University and Bookcraft, 1978), 215–216. ISBN 0884943585. Reprinted in Ernst Benz, "Imago dei: Man as the Image of God," FARMS Review 17/1 (2005): 223–254. off-site (Inglés) Note: Benz misunderstands some aspects of LDS doctrine, but his sketch of the relevance of theosis for Christianity in general, and Joseph Smith's implementation of it, is worthwhile.
  6. [back]  Henry Bettenson, The Early Christian Fathers: A Selection from the Writings of the Fathers from St. Clement of Rome to St. Athanasius (London: Oxford University Press, 1956),16–17. ISBN 0192830090.
  7. [back]  Henry Bettenson, The Early Christian Fathers: A Selection from the Writings of the Fathers from St. Clement of Rome to St. Athanasius (London: Oxford University Press, 1956), 94. ISBN 0192830090.
  8. [back]  Irenaeus, "Against Heresies," in Ante-Nicene Fathers, edited by Philip Schaff (Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1886). ANF ToC off-site (Inglés) This volume
  9. [back]  Henry Bettenson, The Early Christian Fathers: A Selection from the Writings of the Fathers from St. Clement of Rome to St. Athanasius (London: Oxford University Press, 1956), 94. ISBN 0192830090.
  10. [back]  Henry Bettenson, The Early Christian Fathers: A Selection from the Writings of the Fathers from St. Clement of Rome to St. Athanasius (London: Oxford University Press, 1956),95–96. ISBN 0192830090..
  11. [back]  Henry Bettenson, The Early Christian Fathers: A Selection from the Writings of the Fathers from St. Clement of Rome to St. Athanasius (London: Oxford University Press, 1956), 106. ISBN 0192830090.; Citing Irenaeus, Against Heresies, 4.38 cp. 4.11.
  12. [back]  Irenaeus, "Against Heresies," in Ante-Nicene Fathers, edited by Philip Schaff (Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1886)1:419, chapter 6. ANF ToC off-site (Inglés) This volume
  13. [back]  Irenaeus, "Against Heresies," in Ante-Nicene Fathers, edited by Philip Schaff (Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1886)1:450, chapter 6. ANF ToC off-site (Inglés) This volume
  14. [back]  Arthur C. McGiffert, A History of Christian Thought, Vol. 1—Early and Eastern: From Jesus to John of Damascus (New York: Scribner's Sons, 1932), 141.
  15. [back]  Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation to the Greeks, 1.[cita requerida]
  16. [back]  Clement of Alexandria, Clement of Alexandria, The Instructor, 3.1 see also Clement, Stromateis, 23.[cita requerida]
  17. [back]  Henry Bettenson, The Early Christian Fathers: A Selection from the Writings of the Fathers from St. Clement of Rome to St. Athanasius (London: Oxford University Press, 1956),243–244. ISBN 0192830090.; Stromata 7:10 (55–56).
  18. [back]  Origen, Commentary on John, Book II, Chapter 2.
  19. [back]  Origen in Bettensen, Henry. The Early Christian Fathers, 324.
  20. [back]  Origin, De Principiis, 4:1:36 in Ante-Nicene Fathers 4:381.
  21. [back]  Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho, 124.
  22. [back]  Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho, 124.
  23. [back]  Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies 10:29-30, in Ante-Nicene Fathers 5:152.
  24. [back]  Athanasius, Against the Arians, 1.39, 3.39.
  25. [back]  Athanasius, Against the Arians, 1:42, in Nicen and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series 2, 4:330-331.
  26. [back]  Athanasius, On the Incarnation, 54.
  27. [back]  Augustine, On the Psalms, 50:2.
  28. [back]  Jerome, The Homilies of Saint Jerome, 106–107.
  29. [back]  Jerome, The Homilies of Saint Jerome, 106–353.
  30. [back] Alan Richardson (editor), The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Theology (Westminster: John Knox Press, 1983). ISBN 0664213987. (emphasis added).
  31. [back]  Joseph A. Fitzmyer, Pauline Theology: a brief sketch (Prentice-Hall, 1967), 42. AISN B0006BQTCQ.
  32. [back]  G.L. Prestige, God in Patristic Thought (London Press, 1956), 73.
  33. [back]  William Ralph Inge, Christian Mysticism (London, Metheun & Co., 1948[1899]), 13, 356.